A type of algorithm that sorts based upon distribution instead of by comparison. Wikipedia has an article about Radix Sorting. A more detailed description of various Radix Sorting algorithms is provided here:
Donald Knuth. The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3: Sorting and Searching, Second Edition. Addison-Wesley, 1998. ISBN 0-201-89685-0. Section 5.2.5: Sorting by Distribution, pp.168-179.
A high-speed comparison-based sorting algorithm that takes [bigo](N * log(N)) time. See __introsort and Musser, David R. (1997). "Introspective Sorting and Selection Algorithms", Software: Practice and Experience (Wiley) 27 (8), pp 983-993, available at Musser Introsort.
A high-speed hybrid string sorting algorithm that __string_sort is partially based upon. See __american_flag and Peter M. McIlroy, Keith Bostic, M. Douglas McIlroy. Engineering Radix Sort, Computing Systems 1993.
ARL (Adaptive Left Radix) is a hybrid cache-friendly integer sorting algorithm with comparable speed on random data to __integer_sort, but does not have the optimizations for worst-case performance, causing it to perform poorly on certain types of unevenly distributed data.
Arne Maus, ARL, a faster in-place, cache friendly sorting algorithm, presented at NIK2002, Norwegian Informatics Conference, Kongsberg, 2002. Tapir, ISBN 82-91116-45-8.
The algorithm that __integer_sort was originally based on. __integer_sort uses a smaller number of key bits at a time for better cache efficiency than the method described in the paper. The importance of cache efficiency grew as CPU clock speeds increased while main memory latency stagnated. See Steven J. Ross, The Spreadsort High-performance General-case Sorting Algorithm, Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, Volume 3, pp.1100-1106. Las Vegas Nevada. 2002. See Steven Ross spreadsort_2002.
 Introduction to Algorithms, 3rd Edition (Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein)
 C++ STL Sort Algorithms
 Algorithm + Data Structures = Programs ( Nicklaus Wirth) Prentice Hall Series in Automatic Computation
 Structured Parallel Programming: Patterns for Efficient Computation (Michael McCool, James Reinders, Arch Robison)