...one of the most highly
regarded and expertly designed C++ library projects in the
world.

— Herb Sutter and Andrei
Alexandrescu, C++
Coding Standards

namespace graph { template<typename DistributedGraph, typename ColorMap> typename property_traits<ColorMap>::value_type boman_et_al_graph_coloring (const DistributedGraph& g, ColorMap color, typename graph_traits<DistributedGraph>::vertices_size_type s = 100); template<typename DistributedGraph, typename ColorMap, typename ChooseColor> typename property_traits<ColorMap>::value_type boman_et_al_graph_coloring (const DistributedGraph& g, ColorMap color, typename graph_traits<DistributedGraph>::vertices_size_type s, ChooseColor choose_color); template<typename DistributedGraph, typename ColorMap, typename ChooseColor, typename VertexOrdering> typename property_traits<ColorMap>::value_type boman_et_al_graph_coloring (const DistributedGraph& g, ColorMap color, typename graph_traits<DistributedGraph>::vertices_size_type s, ChooseColor choose_color, VertexOrdering ordering); template<typename DistributedGraph, typename ColorMap, typename ChooseColor, typename VertexOrdering, typename VertexIndexMap> typename property_traits<ColorMap>::value_type boman_et_al_graph_coloring (const DistributedGraph& g, ColorMap color, typename graph_traits<DistributedGraph>::vertices_size_type s, ChooseColor choose_color, VertexOrdering ordering, VertexIndexMap vertex_index); }

The `boman_et_al_graph_coloring` function colors the vertices of an
undirected, distributed graph such that no two adjacent vertices have
the same color. All of the vertices of a given color form an
independent set in the graph. Graph coloring has been used to solve
various problems, including register allocation in compilers,
optimization problems, and scheduling problems.

The problem of coloring a graph with the fewest possible number of
colors is NP-complete, so many algorithms (including the one
implemented here) are heuristic algorithms that try to minimize the
number of colors but are not guaranteed to provide an optimal
solution. This algorithm [BBC05] is similar to the
`sequential_vertex_coloring` algorithm, that iterates through the
vertices once and selects the lowest-numbered color that the current
vertex can have. The coloring and the number of colors is therefore
related to the ordering of the vertices in the sequential case.

The distributed `boman_et_al_graph_coloring` algorithm will produce
different colorings depending on the ordering and distribution of the
vertices and the number of parallel processes cooperating to perform
the coloring.

The algorithm returns the number of colors `num_colors` used to
color the graph.

Contents

<`boost/graph/distributed/boman_et_al_graph_coloring.hpp`>

- IN:
`Graph& g` - The graph type must be a model of Distributed Vertex List Graph and Distributed Edge List Graph.
- UTIL/OUT:
`ColorMap color` - Stores the color of each vertex, which will be a value in the range
[0,
`num_colors`). The type`ColorMap`must model the Read/Write Property Map concept and must be a distributed property map. - IN:
`vertices_size_type s` The number of vertices to color within each superstep. After

`s`vertices have been colored, the colors of boundary vertices will be sent to their out-of-process neighbors. Smaller values communicate more often but may reduce the risk of conflicts, whereas larger values do more work in between communication steps but may create many conflicts.**Default**: 100- IN:
`ChooseColor choose_color` A function object that chooses the color for a vertex given the colors of its neighbors. The function object will be passed a vector of values (

`marked`) and a`marked_true`value, and should return a`color`value such that`color >= marked.size()`or`marked[color] != marked_true`.**Default**:`boost::graph::distributed::first_fit_color<color_type>()`, where`color_type`is the value type of the`ColorMap`property map.- IN:
`VertexOrdering ordering` A binary predicate function object that provides total ordering on the vertices in the graph. Whenever a conflict arises, only one of the processes involved will recolor the vertex in the next round, and this ordering determines which vertex should be considered conflicting (its owning process will then handle the conflict). Ideally, this predicate should order vertices so that conflicting vertices will be spread uniformly across processes. However, this predicate

*must*resolve the same way on both processors.**Default**:*unspecified*- IN:
`VertexIndexMap index` A mapping from vertex descriptors to indices in the range

*[0, num_vertices(g))*. This must be a Readable Property Map whose key type is a vertex descriptor and whose value type is an integral type, typically the`vertices_size_type`of the graph.**Default:**`get(vertex_index, g)`

The complexity of this algorithm is hard to characterize,
because it depends greatly on the number of *conflicts* that occur
during the algorithm. A conflict occurs when a *boundary vertex*
(i.e., a vertex that is adjacent to a vertex stored on a different
processor) is given the same color is a boundary vertex adjacency to
it (but on another processor). Conflicting vertices must be assigned
new colors, requiring additional work and communication. The work
involved in reassigning a color for a conflicting vertex is *O(d)*,
where *d* is the degree of the vertex and *O(1)* messages of *O(1)*
size are needed to resolve the conflict. Note that the number of
conflicts grows with (1) the number of processes and (2) the number
of inter-process edges.

The performance of this implementation of Bomen et al's graph coloring algorithm is illustrated by the following charts. Scaling and performance is reasonable for all of the graphs we have tried.

Copyright (C) 2005 The Trustees of Indiana University.

Authors: Douglas Gregor and Andrew Lumsdaine

[BBC05] | Erik G. Boman, Doruk Bozdag, Umit Catalyurek, Assefaw H. Gebremedhin, and Fredrik Manne. A Scalable Parallel Graph Coloring Algorithm for Distributed Memory Computers. [preprint] |